Modelling cost-effectiveness of multipathogen POC tests for sexually transmitted infections

In this BMJ Open article, we report on health economic modelling results that compare three possible strategies for point-of-care (POC) sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing with the current practice of microscopy and lab-based testing.  Results showed that testing for STIs with either a dual, triple or quadruple POC test provided more patient benefit than current practice but may cost more. The quadruple POC test was the least expensive POC strategy relative to standard care – with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £36,585 per quality adjusted life years gained, when taking the clinic’s perspective. When taking the commissioners’ perspective, who pay for the services delivered through tariffs, over £26 million in savings could be achieved using the 4-bug test, mainly because patients were treated appropriately on their first testing visit rather than having to re-attend.

 

PublicationHuntington SE, Burns RM, Harding-Esch E, et al.  ‘Modelling-based evaluation of the costs, benefits and cost-effectiveness of multipathogen point-of-care tests for sexually transmitted infections in symptomatic genitourinary medicine clinic attendees.’ 

To request a copy of the published article, please email caroline.dombrowski@aquariusph.com.

Three simple tests could save the NHS nearly £6.9 billion

This year marks the 70th birthday of the NHS – a time to celebrate its achievements and the dedicated staff who keep its wheels turning. Yet, there is increasing concern about the future of the NHS, and particularly its funding. In this article, jointly commissioned by the British In Vitro Diagnostics Association (BIVDA) and Innovate UK, we showcase three tried and tested in vitro diagnostics, which, if more widely adopted, could save the NHS an estimated £6.9 billion over the next five years.

 

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Exploring HCV eradication through diagnosis and treatment strategies

The World Health Organization aims to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) by 2030. To achieve this, improved HCV diagnosis and treatment coverage are required. We explored the relationship between diagnosis and treatment in the next 5 years in Italy, France, and the UK to understand how to achieve the most benefit.

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Harvey MJ, Cheng C-Y, Leone E, et al. Exploring HCV eradication through diagnosis and treatment strategies. EASL Monothematic Conference, Striving Towards the Elimination of HCV Infection. 2-3 February 2018, Berlin, Germany.

 

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Modelling the burden of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in Europe

Bladder cancer is relatively common in the EU. Most cases are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), classified into risk groups based on their chance of progression, which determines the frequency and duration of monitoring after treatment. We created a flexible tool to estimate the burden of NMIBC cases in eleven European countries and estimated the number of monitoring cystoscopies by risk group based on national and regional guidelines.

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Vecino-Ortiz AI, Glover RE, Adams EJ. Modelling the burden of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in Europe. European Association of Urology. 11-15 March 2016. Munich, Germany.

 

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Estimating the clinical impact and costs of implementing a point of care test for influenza A/B and respiratory syncytial virus on an acute paediatric hospital inpatient ward

We explored the impact of introducing a high performance point of care test (POCT) for influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) on an acute paediatric ward of a large London hospital during influenza season compared to standard care of using a laboratory-based test. We estimated the outcomes before and after implementing a POCT (Enigma® MiniLab™ FluAB-RSV test) for paediatric patients admitted to an acute respiratory ward in the 2013/14 and 2014/15 respiratory seasons. There was a significant reduction in reimbursement charges for influenza- and RSV-negative patients, for the full hospital stay and the period on the acute paediatric ward after implementing the POCT, however, these differences disappeared when controlling for top-up service charges. More appropriate treatment of patients with influenza occurred after implementing the POCT (40% versus 13% received oseltamivir, p=0.02). There was no difference in length of stay between the two periods. Findings indicate cost savings for commissioners and hospitals, even without a reduction in the length of stay.

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Vecino-Ortiz AI, Glover RE, Douthwaite ST, et al.
Estimating the clinical impact and costs of implementing a point of care test for influenza A/B and respiratory syncytial virus on an acute paediatric hospital inpatient ward. Society for Medical Decision Making. 12-14 June 2016. London, UK.

 

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A rapid influenza test in hospitals could avoid unnecessary paediatric isolation bed days and save costs

We created a decision tree to estimate the unnecessary isolation days averted by early diagnosis of false positive patients with a point of care test for influenza compared to presumptive isolation and standard laboratory testing (12 versus 2 hours’ time to results). Assuming a 7% prevalence of influenza in a cohort of 300 patients with suspected influenza, average hospital stay of 3 days, and the cost of an isolation bed being 10% more than a ward bed, using a point of care test could avert 80-95% of the unnecessary isolation days, with an associated estimated cost savings of roughly £7000-£9000, depending on if they test were implemented on the ward or in A&E, respectively. Point of care tests could improve bed management and reduce unnecessary isolation days and the associated costs, and reduce hospital transmission of infection.

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Vecino-Ortiz AI, Glover RE, Rabe AJ, et al. A rapid influenza test in hospitals could avoid unnecessary paediatric isolation bed days and save cost. Society for Medical Decision Making. 12-14 June 2016. London, UK.

 

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Performance of a novel point-of-care molecular assay for the detection of Influenza A, B and RSV in children

We assessed the performance of the new point-of-care Enigma® MiniLab™ assay for Influenza A, B and RSV compared to a centralised laboratory respiratory virus panel. The positive per cent agreement was >95% for Influenza B and RSV but was 79.2% (95% CI 57.8-92.9%) for Influenza A, and the negative per cent agreement was >95% for Influenza A and B, and 94.5% (95% CI 91.9-96.4%) for RSV. The turnaround time for the laboratory respiratory virus panel was 24 hours, compared to ~90 minutes for the Enigma® MiniLab™ test.

Publication
Douthwaite ST, Walker C, Adams EJ, et al.
Performance of a novel point-of-care molecular assay for the detection of Influenza A, B and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Enigma® MiniLab™) in children with acute respiratory infection. JCM, online first 11 Nov 2015. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02887-15

 

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Mapping the diagnostic pathway for breast cancer in England and comparison to Europe

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in England and the second most common cause of cancer death. We mapped the breast cancer diagnostic pathway in England and rest of Europe and estimated the number of women transitioning through each step of the pathway, and the number of symptomatic women. We propose a new metric to discuss breast cancer screening, annual effective screening rate, to allow for comparison of the effectiveness of different breast cancer interventions across Europe.

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Adams EJ, Midha D, Glover R,  et al.
Mapping the diagnostic pathway for breast cancer in England and comparison to Europe ISPOR 18th Annual European Congress. 7-11 November 2015. Milan, Italy.

 

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The cost of pelvic inflammatory disease and potential cost-savings of chlamydia screening

Problem: The POPI trial was a randomised control trial in South London estimating the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and the potential impact of screening for chlamydial infection on preventing PID. The study group wanted to know the costs to the health care system of managing PID, and what cost savings could be made through chlamydia screening.

Approach: We worked with the study team to define the question based on the data they had already collected during the trial, and then developed a strategy to answer it. This involved extracting data from patient notes and building a simple model in Excel to estimate the costs of care for women with PID. National costs were applied to local data, and we scaled up the results to estimate the potential cost savings, both locally and nationally.

 Impact: This work provided estimates of the cost of managing PID, which are useful to groups exploring the impact of delivering care to these patients and also for those wishing to explore the impact of interventions to avoid PID such as chlamydia screening. The results were published in Sexually Transmitted Infections, and has been cited many times in prestigious journals and authoritative reports and used in two modelling studies.

 

Testimonial

“Dr Adams is an excellent health economist, very clear thinking and easy to work with. She has original ideas and delivers on time. She designed the cost analysis for our trial, supervised the research assistant who assembled the relevant data and enabled publication in a high ranking journal.”

  • Dr Pippa Oakeshott, Professor of General Medicine, St Georges University

 

Related publications

publication_iconAghaizu A, Adams EJ, Turner KME, et al. What is the cost of pelvic inflammatory disease and how much could be prevented by screening for Chlamydia trachomatis? Cost analysis of the POPI (prevention of pelvic infection) trial. Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87:312-317.

Thinking critically about the value and cost of drugs: managing patients with invasive fungal disease

We developed a framework to help clinicians and decision-makers think systematically about how to compare patient management options whilst considering the full costs to the healthcare provider, and a toolkit based on this framework for patients with invasive fungal infection in England. Adopting this framework can help healthcare providers move towards a more holistic understanding of drug treatment and management costs that may help the NHS save money, freeing up resources for better health care.

presentation_iconAdams EJ, Kendall E, Horner J, et al. Thinking critically about the value and cost of drugs: managing patients with invasive fungal disease. ECCMID 2015. 25 – 28 April 2015. Copenhagen, Denmark.

 

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