Modelling cost-effectiveness of multipathogen POC tests for sexually transmitted infections

In this BMJ Open article, we report on health economic modelling results that compare three possible strategies for point-of-care (POC) sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing with the current practice of microscopy and lab-based testing.  Results showed that testing for STIs with either a dual, triple or quadruple POC test provided more patient benefit than current practice but may cost more. The quadruple POC test was the least expensive POC strategy relative to standard care – with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £36,585 per quality adjusted life years gained, when taking the clinic’s perspective. When taking the commissioners’ perspective, who pay for the services delivered through tariffs, over £26 million in savings could be achieved using the 4-bug test, mainly because patients were treated appropriately on their first testing visit rather than having to re-attend.

 

PublicationHuntington SE, Burns RM, Harding-Esch E, et al.  ‘Modelling-based evaluation of the costs, benefits and cost-effectiveness of multipathogen point-of-care tests for sexually transmitted infections in symptomatic genitourinary medicine clinic attendees.’ 

To request a copy of the published article, please email caroline.dombrowski@aquariusph.com.

Three simple tests could save the NHS nearly £6.9 billion

This year marks the 70th birthday of the NHS – a time to celebrate its achievements and the dedicated staff who keep its wheels turning. Yet, there is increasing concern about the future of the NHS, and particularly its funding. In this article, jointly commissioned by the British In Vitro Diagnostics Association (BIVDA) and Innovate UK, we showcase three tried and tested in vitro diagnostics, which, if more widely adopted, could save the NHS an estimated £6.9 billion over the next five years.

 

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Test n Treat – rapid STI testing and treatment in colleges: study protocol

Sexually active young people attending London further education (FE) colleges have high rates of chlamydia, but screening rates are low. We describe the study protocol for “Test and Treat” (TnT), an NIHR-funded research study. This is a cluster randomised feasibility trial of frequent, rapid, on-site chlamydia testing using the Cepheid GeneXpert system and same-day treatment in six FE colleges. As part of the study we also conducted qualitative and economic assessments to assess the feasibility of conducting a future large-scale trial to investigate if TnT reduces chlamydia rates. The methods for recruitment, participant data collection, sample collection and testing are described, for baseline and follow-up in the control and intervention groups. The statistical analysis plan for TnT has been published separately.

 

PublicationKerry-Barnard S, Fleming C, Reid F, et al. ‘Test n Treat (TnT)’- Rapid testing and same-day, on-site treatment to reduce rates of chlamydia in sexually active further education college students: study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial. Trials. 2018 Jun 5;19(1):311. doi: 10.1186/s13063-018-2674-8.

To request a copy of the published article, please email caroline.dombrowski@aquariusph.com.

Enabling more efficient patient management of blood stream infections

The Guardian supplement ‘Acting on AMR’, was published in March 2018, and focused on a number of ways to improve antimicrobial stewardship. This supplement included an article by Momentum Bioscience, which highlighted the importance of using technology to enable earlier rule-out of blood stream infections.

In addition to the benefits to patients, Aquarius conducted an economic analysis for Momentum Bioscience to estimate the impact if the test is used on neonates with suspected sepsis. Our estimates showed that if the test is used on all babies born in England, an estimated £6 million could be saved, with a significant reduction in the antibiotics used and length of stay of babies who were free from infection.

Publication Bennett, H  ‘How do we enable more efficient patient management and antibiotic stewardship?’ MediaPlanet (an independent supplement distributed in The Guardian) March 2018 p5.

 

 

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Assessing the impact of point-of-care testing for influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in children admitted to hospital

We assessed the impact and economic benefits of using a point-of-care (POC) assay instead of standard laboratory testing to detect influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children and infants admitted to hospital . This real-world evaluation was conducted in two subsequent ‘flu seasons at the Evelina Children’s Hospital in London. Results showed that following the introduction of the POC testing, children with influenza were more likely to receive oseltamivir treatment, the antiviral recommended for influenza. Although there was no statistically significant reduction in the average length of hospital admission or in the number of antibiotics prescribed, there was a reduction in laboratory costs and in reimbursement charges for hospital admissions suggesting that use of the POC assay resulted in fewer procedures and interventions performed during admissions.

Publication Vecino-Ortiz AI, Goldenberg SD, Douthwaite ST, et alImpact of a multiplex PCR point-of-care test for influenza A/B and respiratory syncytial virus on an acute pediatric hospital ward. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease,  Volume 91, Issue 4, August 2018, Pages 331-335. 

 

To request a copy of the published article, please email caroline.dombrowski@aquariusph.com.

 

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Exploring HCV eradication through diagnosis and treatment strategies

The World Health Organization aims to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) by 2030. To achieve this, improved HCV diagnosis and treatment coverage are required. We explored the relationship between diagnosis and treatment in the next 5 years in Italy, France, and the UK to understand how to achieve the most benefit.

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Harvey MJ, Cheng C-Y, Leone E, et al. Exploring HCV eradication through diagnosis and treatment strategies. EASL Monothematic Conference, Striving Towards the Elimination of HCV Infection. 2-3 February 2018, Berlin, Germany.

 

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Rapid testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections improve patient care and yield public health benefits

With collaborators at Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust, we estimated the impact of a rapid testing and result notification service for patients testing for sexually transmitted infections at the Dean Street Express clinic. We found that a rapid testing service for asymptomatic infections resulted in 8 days’ faster time to result notification for CT and/or NG which enables faster treatment, thus reducing infectious periods and leading to fewer transmissions, unnecessary partner attendances and clinic costs, compared with those attending an existing ‘standard’ sexual health clinic.

PublicationWhitlock GG, Gibbons DC, Longford N, et al. Rapid testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections improve patient care and yield public health benefits
International Journal of STD & AIDS. First Published October 23, 2017
https://doi.org/10.1177/0956462417736431

 

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Cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial resistance point-of-care testing for optimising gonorrhoea treatment

In July, Emma Harding-Esch spoke at the STI and HIV World Congress in Rio on how to best manage the increasing challenge of anti-microbial resistance (AMR). The research she presented was a collaboration between Aquarius Population Health and ADREU St. Georges.  In recent years, there has been an increase in resistance to first-line therapies used to treat STIs such as gonorrhoea. The Aquarius team built a decision tree model to assess the cost-effectiveness of standard care compared to several hypothetical rapid point-of-care tests (POCT) for antibiotic susceptibility. The model simulated a cohort of sexual health clinic attendees. The results showed that while standard care is the cheapest option, AMR POCTs may be cost-effective and maximise the number of effective agents in treatment regimens, providing long-term benefits in some scenarios.

Harding-Esch EM, Huntington SE, Harvey MJ, et al. Cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial resistance point-of-care testing for optimising the treatment of gonorrhoea STI & HIV World Congress. 9-12 July 2017. Rio de Janiero, Brazil.

 

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Evaluating the costs, benefits and cost-effectiveness of multi-pathogen point-of-care tests for sexually transmitted infections

We estimated costs, benefits and cost-effectiveness of three accurate 30-minute NAAT POCT strategies that detect different STI combinations, compared with standard care  (laboratory-based NAAT for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)).  We found the CT-NG-MG-TV POCT strategy was the cheapest using tariff costing. It offered the most benefits, which in turn may have wider public health impacts through rapid and accurate STI diagnosis and management. Different testing strategies may be more cost-effective in different SHCs and patient groups. Further evidence is needed to capture the diversity of STI prevalence and management of patients across clinical services to better inform economic analyses.

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Harding-Esch EM, Huntington SE, Burns RM, et al. Evaluating the costs, benefits and cost-effectiveness of multi-pathogen point-of-care tests for sexually transmitted infections STI & HIV World Congress. 9-12 July 2017. Rio de Janiero, Brazil.

 

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Modelling how point-of-care tests can enable personalised treatment for resistant gonorrhoea infections

We created a mathematical model to investigate the treatment impact and economic implications of introducing an antimicrobial resistance point-of-care test (AMR POCT) for gonorrhoea as a way of extending the life of current last-line treatments. The introduction of AMR POCT could allow clinicians to discern between the majority of gonorrhoea-positive patients with strains that could be treated with older, previously abandoned first-line treatments, and those requiring our current last-line dual therapy. Such tests could extend the useful life of dual ceftriaxone and azithromycin therapy, thus pushing back the time when gonorrhoea may become untreatable.

Publication

Turner KM, Christensen H, Adams EJ, et al Analysis of the potential for point-of-care test to enable individualised treatment of infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant and susceptible strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a modelling study

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